Implementation of Nigerian Government’s Information and Communication Technology Policy on Education in Cross River State Secondary Schools
Dr. Paul C.Israel
This study was executed to assess the extent of implementation of ICT education in Cross River State secondary schools. The survey research design was adopted in carrying out the investigation. A sample of 40 secondary schools comprising urban and rural as well as private and public secondary schools was drawn from all the secondary schools in the state. The data for the study were collected using questionnaires and documentary analysis. Those instruments were validated by two lecturers in computer science and one expert in educational measurement and evaluation at the Federal College of Education, Obudu. The reliability coefficients of the students’ questionnaire and the Principals’ checklist, are .78, .98 respectively. The obtained data were analysed descriptively using simple percentage. The result of the study showed among other things that computer science is not taught in every secondary school in the state; there are no serious measures taken by the state government to ensure the availability of up-to-date computers in the secondary schools in the state; and that most of the students in their ultimate and penultimate years of study in the secondary schools have not yet acquired most of the skills expected of students offering computer science at the secondary school level. The study concluded with the remark that the level of implementation of ICT education in the state is very low. It was therefore recommended inter -alia that the present status of computer science as an elective subject should be changed to a compulsory status at both the junior and senior secondary school levels and that government at all levels should devote a certain percentage of their education budget to the purchase of ICT tools/accessories.
How Physical Systems Evolve Invariants of Symmetries, Their Geometries And Measures
Gudrun Kalmbach H.E.
Physical systems are treated in this investigation as abstract objects, described in a mathematical setting. The meaning of undefined words can be taken from their physical content. The purpose of the investigation was to find a symmetry based extension of the standard model of physics which includes gravity. For this a theory describing states of a deuteron atomic kernel was developed. In a series of articles the author presents the MINT-Wigris theory of her book  in connection with the 8 models of her new MINT-Wigris Tool Bag. They are here useful for describing how energy sytems and interactions evolve. In the first section the tool Horn torus (figure 1) is taken in a decay process for a big bang situation. The figure is for the geometrical location of a Higgs bosons energy as dark matter. In chemistry such simplifications are used by drawing for electrons main energy distribution in an atoms shell a Bohr sphere, a ahndle ot a torus. The chosen shapes are in this article taken as subsets in an octonian space, not necessarily the unverses spacetime. The focus is, also in the other sections, on coordinate constructions, on different sets of invariants in the sense of the Noether theorem, on geometrical shapes and symmetries for or connected with them. Equations, also in differential form, are rarely used. Measures and geometrical shapes arise in many forms. Different mathematical oriented presentations are useful for the understanding of the new theory for physical systems. The basic vector space are octonians. In other forms the 8 dimensions are for the 8 Gell-Mann matrices generating the symmetry of SU(3). In a third projectve geometrical treatment a real 8-dimensional space space is used, complex coordinates are from a 4-dimensional complex space. The difference between octonians and SU(3) generators is in their multiplication tables which allows the seven Gleason frame GF spin like octonian coordinate triples as new measures in the sense of the Copenhagen interpretation of physics. From SU(3) is taken its geometry as trivial fiber bundle product of a 3- with a 5-dimensional sphere. For the field quantums of gravity is assumed that they map the sphere S³ with its Gell-Mann projection 3x3-matrices λ1,2,3 down to the Pauli matrices σ1,2,3 which carry as symmetry the xyz-coordinates of space. The 5-dimensional sphere is a fiber bundle, has a 1-dimensional circle as fiber and as base a complex 2-dimensional space CP² with a bounding 2-dimensional sphere S². This is taken as location for a deuteron atomic kernel and its inner dynamics is set such that gravity can be added to the standard model of phyics. Important as new S² symmetry are its Moebius transformations which give rise to the six cross rations representing six energies. Projective geometry has many applications, for instance of getting quadrics for orbits of systesm in spacetime or for shapes. Complex numbers in 4 dimensions are the standard way to describe the global vector space in whch all physicsl systems live. How these spaces, symmetries, energy forces, interactions and local energy systems can evolve from the Horn torus is mathematical described in this article.
Physiotherapy Management of Lumbar Radiculopathy with Hamstring Injury (Grade-II) Patient by Using Different Clinical Reasoning Process: A Case Report
Nadia Afrin Urme
Background: Clinical reasoning is a thinking and decision making procedure which helps the clinician to interact with the patient and their family members and other health care professionals in daily practice. During this process RPS-form (rehabilitation problem solving) can provide beneficial and also serve as linguistic tools between health professionals. The purpose of this study was to manage a case with lumbar radiculopathy with hamstring injury patient by using different clinical reasoning process and to deepen the clinician existing knowledge about CR.
Method:A case based study which was solved by using hypothetico-deductive and narrative reasoning. Also other reasoning process has to use. RPS tools help to solve the problem both from patient and therapist perspectives.
Result:After 21 session of treatment improvement was found in patient pain reduction, both in resting (VAS. 0/10) and movement (VAS. 2/10). Full range of motion (ROM) achieved in all lumbar movement, muscle power of lower limb. Both active and passive straight leg raising (SLR) also improve by treatment. Disability score of lumbar spine measured by Oswestry disability index improved from 75% to 18% and lower limb measured by lower extremity functional scale improved from 29 to 75.
Conclusion:When dealing with a difficult case strictly going through a single reasoning process is difficult, we need to use several reasoning process. It will help us to rapid and accurate assessment of a patient. In this case by using CR process clinician successfully manage the case by conservative treatment.
Corruption Galore and The Development Initiatives In Nigeria
Moses Sunday Oyelere
It is the aspiration of every independent nation to attain some degree of development over a certain period of time but of course to achieve such, planning through deliberate formulation and diligent implementation of development policies is the wheel to success, since development cannot occur naturally or by accident. This study examined the Nigerian development initiatives from the first to the fourth National Development Plan and subsequent developmental agendas of each regime but more importantly, how corrupt practices had stolen, killed and destroyed the primary aims of each plan. A review of corruption cases in Nigeria political sphere revealed the extent to which corruption had made development becomes a mirage in Nigeria. Glaringly, the study unveils that Nigeria remains an underdeveloped country mainly as a result of unabated corrupt practices in all sphere of governance and non-governmental establishment in the country and thereby it proffer workable solutions to combat this wicked menace.