FLOATING TABLETS AS A CONTROLLED RELEASE STOMACH TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE.
Diltiazem hydrochloride is a potent calcium channel blocker which is freely soluble in water and readily absorbed from stomach. The present investigation was concerned with the development and evaluation of a gastro retentive drug delivery system of Diltiazem hydrochloride in the form of floating matrix tablets, to control the release of the drug. A 23 factorial design was followed to formulate Diltiazem hydrochloride floating tablets. Experiments were built using three independent factors, namely, drug/polymer ratio potassium bicarbonate concentration and citric acid concentration each at two levels leading to 24 formulae. The data of chosen responses, namely floating duration, floating lag time, t50% and t80%, were analyzed according to the established factorial design. The results were analyzed statistically. The ANOVA was performed and the main effects and interactions were calculated. The three polymers used were hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, methylcellulose and sodium alginate. It was found generally that for all three polymers used the increase in the drug/polymer ratio, potassium carbonate concentration or citric acid concentration increased the t50% and t80% indicating that the formulated floating tablets succeeded in retardation of Diltiazem hydrochloride and thus controlling its release.
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CARDIOSPERMUM CORINDUM L FAUX PERSIL FROM BOTSWANA
The aim of this study was to compare the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of roots and shoots of Cardiospermum corindum collected from two geographically distant regions of Botswana (Tswapong Hills and Kgale Hills). Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids. Analysis by thin layer chromatography, revealed that both shoots and roots of plant collected from the two respective regions showed no differences in phytochemical constituents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were quantitatively estimated. Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method varied from 164.4±2.2 to 364.2±3.1mg/L (GAE) Gallic Acid Equivalents. The order of total phenol contents were [364.2±3.1](Roots from Tswapong Hills)>[356.0±4.5](Roots from Kgale Hills)>[169.1±2.6](Shoots from Tswapong Hills)>[164.4±2.2mg/lGAE](Shoots from Kgale Hills). The total flavonoid contents as measured by aluminium Chloride method varied from 56.7±1.1 to 124.1±1.5mg/L(QE) Quercetin Equivalents. The order of the total flavonoid contents were [124.1±1.5](Shoots from Kgale Hills)>[118.8±2.6](Shoots from Tswapong Hills)>[63.3±1.6](Roots from Tswapong Hills)>[56.7±1.1mg/l QE](Roots from Kgale Hills). The antioxidant activity as determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, revealed that, at all tested concentrations, root extracts exhibited greater (≥86%) scavenging potency than shoot extracts (≤83%). A direct correlation between total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity was revealed. This work has validated the use of this plant as a health improving tool. However, structural identification of the bioactive constituents should be carried out